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The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.
The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.
Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.
Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.
Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.
When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.
Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.
Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent.
The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content.
This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.
According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis.
Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.
Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities.
Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis  and the U. It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug.
A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.
The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.
When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.
When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.
In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.
And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it? Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, [ citation needed ] and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.
The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.
In , Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.
In , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann , a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.
Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves , which was published in —it earned him his PhD and is now in the British Library.
He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.
The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.
In , Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid.
He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water. He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.
The leg that had been immersed in the cocaine solution reacted very differently from the leg that had been immersed in salt water.
Karl Koller a close associate of Sigmund Freud , who would write about cocaine later experimented with cocaine for ophthalmic usage. In an infamous experiment in , he experimented upon himself by applying a cocaine solution to his own eye and then pricking it with pins.
His findings were presented to the Heidelberg Ophthalmological Society. Also in , Jellinek demonstrated the effects of cocaine as a respiratory system anesthetic.
In , William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia,  and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia.
In , an Italian doctor , Paolo Mantegazza , returned from Peru , where he had witnessed first-hand the use of coca by the local indigenous peoples.
He proceeded to experiment on himself and upon his return to Milan he wrote a paper in which he described the effects. In this paper he declared coca and cocaine at the time they were assumed to be the same as being useful medicinally, in the treatment of "a furred tongue in the morning, flatulence , and whitening of the teeth.
A chemist named Angelo Mariani who read Mantegazza's paper became immediately intrigued with coca and its economic potential.
In , Mariani started marketing a wine called Vin Mariani , which had been treated with coca leaves, to become cocawine.
The ethanol in wine acted as a solvent and extracted the cocaine from the coca leaves, altering the drink's effect.
A "pinch of coca leaves" was included in John Styth Pemberton 's original recipe for Coca-Cola , though the company began using decocainized leaves in when the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed.
In cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anesthetic in Germany in , about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Über Coca , in which he wrote that cocaine causes: .
Exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person.
You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work. In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug.
Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue. This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcoholic beverages.
No craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug. In the U. The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and render the sufferer insensitive to pain.
By the late Victorian era , cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature. For example, it was injected by Arthur Conan Doyle 's fictional Sherlock Holmes , generally to offset the boredom he felt when he was not working on a case.
In early 20th-century Memphis, Tennessee , cocaine was sold in neighborhood drugstores on Beale Street , costing five or ten cents for a small boxful.
Stevedores along the Mississippi River used the drug as a stimulant, and white employers encouraged its use by black laborers.
During the mids, amidst World War II, cocaine was considered for inclusion as an ingredient of a future generation of 'pep pills' for the German military, code named D-IX.
In modern popular culture, references to cocaine are common. The drug has a glamorous image associated with the wealthy, famous and powerful, and is said to make users "feel rich and beautiful".
In many countries, cocaine is a popular recreational drug. In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market.
Use of the powder form has stayed relatively constant, experiencing a new height of use during the late s and early s in the U.
Cocaine use is prevalent across all socioeconomic strata, including age, demographics, economic, social, political, religious, and livelihood.
The estimated U. Cocaine's status as a club drug shows its immense popularity among the "party crowd".
However, a decision by an American representative in the World Health Assembly banned the publication of the study, because it seemed to make a case for the positive uses of cocaine.
An excerpt of the report strongly conflicted with accepted paradigms, for example "that occasional cocaine use does not typically lead to severe or even minor physical or social problems.
This led to the decision to discontinue publication. A part of the study was recuperated and published in , including profiles of cocaine use in 20 countries, but are unavailable as of [update].
In October it was reported that the use of cocaine in Australia has doubled since monitoring began in A problem with illegal cocaine use, especially in the higher volumes used to combat fatigue rather than increase euphoria by long-term users, is the risk of ill effects or damage caused by the compounds used in adulteration.
The normal adulterants for profit are inactive sugars, usually mannitol, creatine or glucose, so introducing active adulterants gives the illusion of purity and to 'stretch' or make it so a dealer can sell more product than without the adulterants.
The production, distribution, and sale of cocaine products is restricted and illegal in most contexts in most countries as regulated by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
In the United States the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of cocaine are additionally regulated by the Controlled Substances Act.
Some countries, such as Peru and Bolivia, permit the cultivation of coca leaf for traditional consumption by the local indigenous population , but nevertheless, prohibit the production, sale, and consumption of cocaine.
The US federal government instituted a national labeling requirement for cocaine and cocaine-containing products through the Pure Food and Drug Act of While this act is often seen as the start of prohibition, the act itself was not actually a prohibition on cocaine, but instead set up a regulatory and licensing regime.
In , according to the United Nations , tonnes of cocaine were seized globally by law enforcement authorities.
Because of the drug's potential for addiction and overdose, cocaine is generally treated as a " hard drug ", with severe penalties for possession and trafficking.
Demand remains high, and consequently, black market cocaine is quite expensive. Unprocessed cocaine, such as coca leaves , are occasionally purchased and sold, but this is exceedingly rare as it is much easier and more profitable to conceal and smuggle it in powdered form.
Colombia is as of the world's largest cocaine producer, with production more than tripling since This, combined with crop reductions in Bolivia and Peru, made Colombia the nation with the largest area of coca under cultivation after the mids.
Coca grown for traditional purposes by indigenous communities, a use which is still present and is permitted by Colombian laws, only makes up a small fragment of total coca production, most of which is used for the illegal drug trade.
An interview with a coca farmer published in described a mode of production by acid-base extraction that has changed little since The leaves were dried for half a day, then chopped into small pieces with a string trimmer and sprinkled with a small amount of powdered cement replacing sodium carbonate from former times.
Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. The resulting material, when dried, was termed pasta and sold by the farmer.
Repeated recrystallization from solvents, producing pasta lavada and eventually crystalline cocaine were performed at specialized laboratories after the sale.
Attempts to eradicate coca fields through the use of defoliants have devastated part of the farming economy in some coca growing regions of Colombia, and strains appear to have been developed that are more resistant or immune to their use.
Whether these strains are natural mutations or the product of human tampering is unclear. These strains have also shown to be more potent than those previously grown, increasing profits for the drug cartels responsible for the exporting of cocaine.
Although production fell temporarily, coca crops rebounded in numerous smaller fields in Colombia, rather than the larger plantations.
The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.
The latest estimate provided by the U. As of the end of , the seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different countries have totaled Department of State's estimates.
Synthetic cocaine would be highly desirable to the illegal drug industry as it would eliminate the high visibility and low reliability of offshore sources and international smuggling, replacing them with clandestine domestic laboratories, as are common for illicit methamphetamine.
However, natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Actual full synthesis of cocaine is rarely done.
Formation of inactive stereoisomers cocaine has 4 chiral centres — 1 R , 2 R , 3 S , and 5 S , 2 of them dependent, hence a total potential of 8 possible stereoisomers plus synthetic by-products limits the yield and purity.
Organized criminal gangs operating on a large scale dominate the cocaine trade. As of [update] , cocaine shipments from South America transported through Mexico or Central America were generally moved over land or by air to staging sites in northern Mexico.
The cocaine is then broken down into smaller loads for smuggling across the U. The primary cocaine importation points in the United States have been in Arizona , southern California , southern Florida , and Texas.
Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. Sixty-five percent of cocaine enters the United States through Mexico, and the vast majority of the rest enters through Florida.
Cocaine traffickers from Colombia and Mexico have established a labyrinth of smuggling routes throughout the Caribbean, the Bahama Island chain, and South Florida.
They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.
Another route of cocaine traffic goes through Chile, which is primarily used for cocaine produced in Bolivia since the nearest seaports lie in northern Chile.
While the price of cocaine is higher in Chile than in Peru and Bolivia, the final destination is usually Europe, especially Spain where drug dealing networks exist among South American immigrants.
Cocaine is also carried in small, concealed, kilogram quantities across the border by couriers known as " mules " or "mulas" , who cross a border either legally, for example, through a port or airport, or illegally elsewhere.
The drugs may be strapped to the waist or legs or hidden in bags, or hidden in the body. If the mule gets through without being caught, the gangs will reap most of the profits.
If he or she is caught, however, gangs will sever all links and the mule will usually stand trial for trafficking alone.
Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. Commercial fishing vessels are also used for smuggling operations.
In areas with a high volume of recreational traffic, smugglers use the same types of vessels, such as go-fast boats , as those used by the local populations.
Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Although the vessels were once viewed as a quirky sideshow in the drug war, they are becoming faster, more seaworthy, and capable of carrying bigger loads of drugs than earlier models, according to those charged with catching them.
Cocaine is readily available in all major countries' metropolitan areas. According to the Summer Pulse Check , published by the U.
Twenty dollars might purchase 0. Quality and price can vary dramatically depending on supply and demand, and on geographic region.
Between and , the value of the market remained basically stable". In , researchers proposed the use of cocaine in conjunction with phenylephrine administered in the form of an eye drop as a diagnostic test for Parkinson's disease.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Strong stimulant used as a recreational drug. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation.
US : C Risk not ruled out . CNS stimulant Local anesthetic. IUPAC name. Interactive image. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication. See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction.
Main article: Freebase chemistry. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine.
Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use. Main article: Cocaine in the United States.
Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States. Medicine portal. Retrieved 30 April Cambridge University Press.
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Ricorda che la lista dei vocaboli viene salvata soltanto sul tuo browser. Hallo Welt. SL DE. La mia cronologia di ricerca I miei preferiti.
Se lo attivi, potrai usare il Trainer lessicale e le altre funzioni. Kokain nt. Koks m jargon. Schnee m sl. Kokain nehmen. Kokain schnupfen [ ali schnüffeln ].
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